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3D printed vascularized tissue scaffold with extracellular matrix triggered growth factor release

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Scaffold releases growth factors after activation by extracellular matrix enzymesMethod of manufacture and testing of vascularized bone scaffold
Haitao Cui
Wei Zhu
Benjamin Holmes
Lijie Grace Zhang
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Brian Coblitz
Sr. Licensing Associate (202) 994-4345
Patent Protection

Provisional Patent Application Filed
Biologically Inspired Smart Release System Based on 3D Bioprinted Perfused Scaffold for Vascularized Tissue Regeneration
Advanced Science, Apr. 15, 2016,

“Vas-Scaf” is a 3D bio-printed vascularized bone scaffold perfused with osteogenic and angiogenic growth factors. Artificial bone grafts lacking vascularization fail due to poor integration of new tissues with the host and death of interior bone tissues. Bone and blood vessel tissues require different support structures and different biochemical stimuli to support tissue growth and differentiation. “Vas-Scaf” regulates osteogenesis and angiogenesis through growth factors BMP-2 and VEGF, respectively, with both immobilized in their specific regions of the scaffold.

“Vas-Scaf” fabrication starts with a nano-coating to enable the delivery of BMP-2 and VEGF at specified places and times. This nano-coating selectively releases the two growth factors through when in the presence of extracellular matrix enzymes, thereby delivering stimuli at the appropriate time.

The integration of a strong 3D-printed scaffold with features designed for bone and vascular growth with immobilization of tissue-specific biochemically-released growth factors in each feature can create an ideal bone graft. 


  • Bone defect reconstruction


  • Large scale bone defect reconstruction through vascularization
  • Lowered risk of necrosis
  • Fine spatial control of multiple growth factor placement